At the heart of our results is a new structural theorem characterizing uncreased intrinsically flat surfaces—the portions of paper between the creases. Differential geometry has much to say about the local behavior of such surfaces when they are sufficiently smooth, e.g., that they are torsal ruled. But this classic result is simply false in the context of the whole surface. Our structural characterization tells the whole story, and even applies to surfaces with discontinuities in the second derivative. We use our theorem to prove fundamental properties about how paper folds, for example, that straight creases on the piece of paper must remain piecewise-straight (polygonal) by folding.